|Animal Products -meats –||pork, lamb, beef liver|
|Nuts/seeds –||sunflower seeds|
|Vegetables –||soybeans, lima beans, lentils, peas|
|Grains –||buckwheat, oats, barley, wheat germ, sorghum|
|Occupational sources –||working around metal fumes. Molybdenum is used to make stainless steel, photographic chemicals, lubricants, pigments and reagents|
- In the blood, molybdenum is most commonly found in a complex with copper.
- Molybdenum concentrates in the liver, kidney, bone and significant amounts are found in the dental enamel and hair.
- The main route of excretion is through the kidneys.
- Molybdenum is an ultra-trace mineral.
- Molybdenum is required for xanthine oxidase, an enzyme involved in the formation of uric acid.
- In animals, another enzyme, aldehyde oxidase, also requires molybdenum. This enzyme is involved in detoxification.
- Molybdenum has been shown in animals to be involved with fat, purine and sulfate metabolism.
- It is also involved in detoxification and intimately involved in copper metabolism.
|impaired growth||tooth decay|
|male impotence||xanthine stones|
- Symptoms of elevated copper can result from a molybdenum deficiency
- Acute toxicity causes severe diarrhea.
- Chronic toxicity may cause gout..
- Copper deficiency symptoms may also occur, including skin problems, hair loss, growth retardation, osteoporosis, thyroid abnormality, bone and joint abnormalities and weight loss.
- Molybdenum is considered to be synergistic with iron and sulfur.
- Molybdenum also raises sodium levels and is synergistic with vitamins B1 and B3 (xanthine oxidase).
- Molybdenum is a powerful copper antagonist. Most copper antagonists such as zinc displace copper. A unique property of molybdenum is that it binds or complexes directly with copper and facilitates its removal. This enables copper to be removed from the body without the common side effects that often occur with copper removal.
- Another reason for this action is that molybdenum raises sodium, offsetting the sodium-lowering effect that occurs when copper is eliminated.
- Molybdenum absorption is antagonized by copper, sulfur, methionine and a high-protein diet.
- Molybdenum metabolism is antagonized by manganese, zinc and at times sulfur.